Not Just Surviving, but Thriving: Motivation and Job Crafting Techniques of Long-term eikaiwa Teachers
James Taylor, International College of Technology, Kanazawa, Japan
Despite the widespread view within Japanese ELT (English language teaching) of eikaiwa (private English conversation school) teaching as entry-level, the often-disparaging mass media coverage it receives (Crooks, 2010; McCrostie, 2014; McNeill, 2004; McNeil, 2019), and the high turnover of instructors (McNeill, 2004), many teachers have sustained their motivation for the job. Using Braun and Clarke’s (2012) framework for deductive thematic analysis and semi-structured interviews with eikaiwa teachers who have worked in the industry for more than a decade, this study aims to shed some light on the professional lives of these long-term eikaiwa teachers. In particular, the study explores the extent to which the teachers’ basic psychological needs as defined within self-determination theory are satisfied or frustrated. This study also explores the methods these teachers use to maintain their motivation by job crafting (Berg, et al., 2007).
Examining the Use of L1 by Native-level English Teachers
Simon Bannister, Kanda University of International Studies
Throughout the world of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), there is a predominant mantra of “English-only” (monolingual) classes and the idea that absolute immersion in the target language will enable learners to maximise their learning potential. Especially in the context of native-level English teachers (NETs), many of whom do not share the same mother tongue as their learners, it is understandable that this overriding belief exists. This mixed-methods study was conducted to assess the extent to which NETs use L1 in EFL classes in the Greater Tokyo Area for ‘academic’, ‘managerial’, and ‘social & cultural’ aspects of EFL pedagogy as well as to examine their attitudes towards this approach. Overall, it was found that NETs do not use L1 to a great extent, but attitudes towards the facilitative use of L1 for ‘academic’ purposes were generally positive.